technical support and FAqs
Badrilla scientists are available to provide one-on-one phone- or email–based technical support and advice. Our research experience and critical role in the development and validation of our products ensures that we are well equipped to provide rapid and comprehensive technical support and guidance. You can contact the Scientific Support team as follows:
If your query is straightforward, you may find it more convenient to browse our list of FAQs below. If you can’t find an answer to your question here, a member of our team will be happy to receive your call or email.
Reconstituted antibody (typically we recommend 18 MΩ H2O for reconstitution) can be aliquoted and stored frozen at -80°C for up to 1 year. Aliquoting minimizes damage due to freezing and thawing, as well as contamination introduced by pipetting from a single vial multiple times.
The size of the aliquots will depend on how much antibody you typically require in your experiments. We generally recommend that aliquots are no smaller than 10 µl as low volume can affect stock concentration by evaporation and adsorption of the antibody onto the surface of the storage vial.
Freeze – thaw cycles should be avoided as this process can denature an antibody, causing it to form aggregates that can reduce the binding capacity. You should ensure that your freezer is not a frost-free unit. These freezers cycle between freezing and thawing (to reduce frost-build-up), which should be avoided. For the same reason, antibody vials should be placed in an area of the freezer that has minimal temperature fluctuations, for example towards the back rather than on a door shelf.
Secondary antibodies should be raised against the same host species as the primary antibody you are using. For example, if your primary is a mouse monoclonal, you will require an anti-mouse secondary. We recommend you check the datasheet of the secondary antibody to ensure it is tested in the application you will be using.
If you require a positive control, please refer to the datasheet, which will often show a positive control being used in the QC data. Always ensure the sample you are using is from a tested species. If a suitable control is not listed, we recommend checking the Swiss-Prot or Omnigene databases, which will often have a list of tissues that the protein is expressed in.
The recommended dilution for specific applications is included in our datasheets and should be used as a starting point, however please note that optimal dilution can be variable and must ultimately be determined by the end user.
Badrilla products are cited in over 350 peer-reviewed publications. Our product web pages are updated as soon as we receive new information relating to product citations and we maintain a running list of all citations on our website at: badrilla.com/citations.
In most cases we disclose the exact sequence of the immunogen used. We invest a lot of time and effort into selecting immunogen sequences in order to deliver the most effective antibodies so we sometimes opt to protect this information by making it available on request only.
Western blotting separates proteins based on their size. In general, the smaller the protein the faster it migrates through the gel. However, migration can also be affected by other factors, so the actual band size observed may differ from that predicted. The following may affect band size:
- Post-translational modification – e.g. phosphorylation, glycosylation etc, which increases the size of the protein
- Post-translation cleavage – e.g. many proteins are synthesized as pro-proteins and then cleaved to give the active form
- Splice variants – alternative splicing may create different sized proteins produced from the same gene
- Relative charge – the composition of amino acids (charged vs non-charged)
- Multimers – e.g. dimerisation of a protein. This is usually prevented in reducing conditions, although strong interactions can result in the appearance of higher bands
A clone number is given to an antibody produced by a single clone of hybridoma cells. Each hybridoma cell clone produces one single pure homogeneous type of antibody. The term “monoclonal” relates to a single clone of cells, a single cell and the progeny of that cell. Since antibodies are produced by more than one host, each cloned cell line receives a unique clone number. The clone number is not synonymous with the lot number.
We do not offer free samples for testing purposes but with many of our products we do offer smaller unit sizes for carrying out initial tests. Our policy is that if an antibody does not work as specified on the datasheet, we will offer a replacement or refund. Please note that if the antibody is being used in an untested species or application, we cannot offer a replacement or refund.
We do not offer discounts for a single unit purchase. Depending on the product, we will usually consider discounts on orders for five units or more (this can be five units of the same product, or a mixture of products). All of our products are available in bulk, so if you require larger quantities for your research, please contact our customer services team for a quotation.